List of state leaders in the 19th century (1851–1900)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from List of state leaders in 1867)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
State leaders in 1889

Lists of state leaders by century:
See also:
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Timelines:
State leaders:
Decades:
Categories: BirthsDeaths
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

This is a list of state leaders in the 19th century (1851–1900) AD, except for the leaders within British south Asia and its predecessor states, and those leaders within the Holy Roman Empire.

These polities are generally sovereign states, but excludes minor dependent territories, whose leaders can be found listed under territorial governors in the 19th century. For completeness, these lists can include colonies, protectorates, or other dependent territories that have since gained sovereignty.

Africa[edit]

Africa: Central[edit]

Angola

  • Kambolo ka Ngonga, King (1851–1856)
  • Kamweje ka Kalunga, King (1856–1857)
  • Mbumba a Kinguri, King (1857–1873)
  • Malenge a Kitumba, King (1873)
  • Kwango, King (1883–1885)
  • Kasanje ka Kalanyi, King (1888)
  • Kinguri kya Kiluanje, King (1896)
vassal to Portugal: 1888–1914
Colony, 1575–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Cameroon

German colony, 1884–1916
For details see the German Empire under central Europe

Central African Republic

Chad

  • ‘Abdul Qadir II al-Mahdi, Mbangi (1846–1858)
  • Abu-Sekkin Mohammed IV, Mbangi (1858–1870)
  • ‘Abd ar-Rahman II, Mbangi (1870–1871)
  • Abu-Sekkin Mohammed IV, Mbangi (1871–1884)
  • Burkomanda IV as-Saghir, Mbangi (1884–1885)
  • Ngarmane Ermanala, Regent (1885)
  • Gaourang II, Mbangi (1885–1897)
  • ‘Izz ad-Din Muhammad al-Sharif ibn Salih Derret, Kolak (1835–1858)
  • 'Ali ibn Muhammad, Kolak (1858–1874)
  • Yusuf ibn ‘Ali, Kolak (1874–1898)
  • Ibrahim ibn ‘Ali, Kolak (1898–1900)
  • Ahmad Abu al-Ghazali ibn ‘Ali, Kolak (1900–1901)
  • rule of Rabih az-Zubayr
Colony, 1900–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Congo: Belgian; today, the Democratic Republic of the Congo

  • Bope Mobinji, Nyim (1840–1885)
  • Mikope Mobinji, Nyim (1885–1890)
  • KotoMboke, Nyim (1890–1896)
  • Mishanga Pelenge, Nyim (1896–1900)
  • Msiri, King (1856–1891)
  • Sovereign –

Congo: French; today, the Republic of the Congo

Colony, 1882–1910
For details see France under western Europe

Equatorial Guinea

Colony, 1778–1968
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Gabon

French Colony, 1882–1910
For details see France under western Europe

São Tomé and Príncipe

Colony, 1470–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Africa: East[edit]

Great Lakes area

Burundi
Kenya
British protectorate, 1895–1920
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
Nabahani dynasty
unnamed dynasty
  • Ahmad ibn Fumo Bakari, Mfalume (1858–1888)
  • Fumo Bakari ibn Ahmad, Mfalume (1888–1890)
  • Bwana Shaykh ibn Ahmad, Mfalume (1890–1891)
  • Fumo `Umar ibn Ahmad, Mfalume (1891–1893,1895–1923)
Rwanda
South Sudan
Tanzania
Colony, 1885–1919
For details see the German Empire under central Europe
Uganda
British protectorate, 1894–1962
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Horn of Africa area

Djibouti
Colony, 1896–1946
For details see France under western Europe
Eritrea
Colony, 1890–1936
For details see Italy under southcentral Europe
Ethiopia
  • Abba Rebo, Moti (?–1856)
  • Abba Dula, Moti (?–1864)
  • Abba Jifar, Moti (late 19th century)
  • Abba Boka, Moti (?–1886)
  • Jawe, Moti (c.1840–1854)
  • Abba Dula, Moti (1854–1879)
  • Abba Jubir, Moti (June 1879–c.1890)
  • Abba Fogi, Moti (c.1890–1899)
  • Firisa, Moti (1899–1902)
  • Gawi Nechocho or Haji Ginoch, King (1845–1854)
  • Kaye Sherocho or Kamo, King (1854–1870)
  • Gali Sherocho, King (1870–1890)
  • Gaki Sherocho, King (1890–1897)
  • Ibsa, Abba Bagibo, Supera (1825–1861)
  • Abba Bulgu, Supera (1861–1883)
  • Abba Gomoli II, Supera (1883–1891)
  • Gobe, Kawa (1845–1886)
  • Gaga, Kawa (1886–c.1890)
  • Tona, Kawa (1890–1895)
Somalia
  • Suldaan Maxamuud Suldaan Cismaan Suldaan Maxamuud, King (1844–1860)
  • Osman Mahamuud, King (1860–c.1924)
  • Garaad Aul, Sultan (1830–1870)
  • Garaad Ali Shire, Sultan (1870–1897)
Colony, 1890–1936
For details see Italy under southcentral Europe
Protectorate, 1884–1940, 1941–1960
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Indian Ocean

Comoros
  • Mohamed bin Saidi Hamadi Makadara, Sultan (1865–1874)
  • Djoumbé Fatima, Regent (1865–1868)
  • Joseph Lambert, Duc d'Imerina, Regent (1868–1871)
  • Djoumbé Fatima, Regent (1871–1878)
  • Abderremane bin Saidi Hamadi Makadara, Sultan (1878–1885)
  • Mohammed Shekhe, Sultan (1885–1886)
  • Marjani bin Abudu Shekhe, Sultan (1886–1888)
  • Salima Machamba bint Saidi Hamadi Makadara Queen/Sultan (1888–1909)
  • Fadeli bin Othman, Balia Juma, Abudu Tsivandini, Regents (1888–1889)
  • Mahmudu bin Mohamed Makadara, Regent (1889–1897)
  • Salima Machamba bint Saidi Hamadi Makadara Queen/Sultan (1888–1909)
  • Salim bin Alawi, Sultan (1837–1852)
  • Saidi Abdallah bin Salim, Sultan (1852–1891)
  • Salim bin Abdalla, Sultan (1891–1891)
  • Saidi Omar bin Saidi Hasan, Sultan (1891–1892)
  • Saidi Mohamed bin Saidi Omar, Sultan (1892–1912)
French protectorate, 1887–1908
For details see France under western Europe
Madagascar
French protectorate, 1882–1897
Colony, 1897–1958
For details see France under western Europe
Mauritius
Colony, 1810–1968
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
Seychelles
Part of British Mauritius, 1811–1903
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Africa: Northcentral[edit]

Libya

Tunisia

Protectorate, 1881–1956
For details see France under western Europe

Africa: Northeast[edit]

Egypt

Sudan

  • Nasir, Mukūk (1843–c.1860)
  • Adam I, Mukūk (c.1860–1884)
Condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt, 1899–1956
For details see the United Kingdom and Egypt

Africa: Northwest[edit]

Algeria

French Départements, 1830–1962
For details see France under western Europe

Morocco and Western Sahara

Overseas territory, 1884–1975
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Africa: South[edit]

Botswana

British protectorate, 1885–1966
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Eswatini/ Swaziland

Lesotho

Kingdom, 1822–1884
British colony, 1884–1966
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Malawi

British protectorate, 1893–1907
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Mozambique

Colony, 1498–1972
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Namibia

  • Shimwemwe (1785–1805)
Colony, 1884–1915
For details see the German Empire under central Europe

South Africa

  • Lucas Johannes Meijer, President (1884–1888)
British colony, 1795–1910
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
British colony, 1843–1910
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
British colony, 1877–1881, 1902–1910
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Zambia

Zimbabwe

Company rule, 1890–1924
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
  • Changamire Tohwechipi Zharare, King (1831–1866)[11]

Africa: West[edit]

Benin

State annexed by France (1895)
  • Adolo, Oba (1848–1897)
See also Ovonramwen
French protectorate, 1894–1900
  • Ajibolu, Oba of Ketu (1795–1816)

Burkina Faso

  • Lansongi, King (?)[12]
  • Yencirima, King (?)[12]
  • Yenahmma, King (?–1878)[13]
  • Yenkuaga, King (c.1878–1917)[14]
Buricimba Dynasty
  • Yempaabu, ruler (1890s–?)
  • Yembuado, ruler (?)
  • Bantia, ruler (19th century)
  • Yenkpaari, ruler (19th century)
  • Yembrima, ruler (late 19th century–1897)
  • Yentema, ruler (1897–1899)
  • Hampandi, ruler (1899–1923)
  • Bandigoo, ruler (19th century)
  • Wurbendi, ruler (19th century)
  • Yembuado, ruler (19th century)
  • Baalisongi, ruler (19th century)
  • Yenkoari, ruler (19th century)
  • Yembrima, ruler (late 19th century–1889)
  • Yensombu, ruler (1889–1892)
  • Baahamma, ruler (1892–1905)
  • Alfa Hano, ruler (c.1870–c.1874)
  • Gazari, ruler (c.1874–1883)
  • Babatu, ruler (1883–1899)
  • Builsa Hamaria, ruler (1894–1897)
  • Bako Moru Wattara, ruler (1839–1851)
  • Laganfyela Moru, ruler (1851–1854)
  • Ali Dyan, ruler (1854–1878)
  • Kokoroko Dyan, ruler (1878–1885)
  • Sabana, ruler (1885–1892)
  • Tyeba Wattara Nyandane, ruler (1892–1897)
  • Pintyeba Wattara, ruler (1897–1909)
  • Brahima Sori bi Hama, Almami (1832–1861)
  • Seku bi Salifu, Almami (1861–1887)
  • Bubakar Amadu bi Isa, Almami (1887–1890)
  • Bubakar bi Sori, Almami (1890–1891)
  • Brahima Usman, Almami (1891–1915)
  • Yembrima, Boopo (19th century)
  • Baahamma, Boopo (late 19th century)
  • Yempaabu, Boopo (late 19th century)
  • Labidiedo, Boopo (late 19th century–1887)
  • Tintuoriba Adama, Boopo (1887–1896)
  • Hampanli, Boopo (1896–1897)
  • Huntani, Boopo (1897–1902)
  • Yempabu, Nunbado (1846–1856)
  • Yempadigu, Nunbado (1856–1883)
  • Yentuguri, Nunbado (1883–1892)
  • Bancandi, Nunbado (1892–1911)
  • Yenkpaari, Pielabedo (1844–1851)
  • Yencaari, Pielabedo (1851–1856)
  • Yentandi, Pielabedo (1856–1901)
  • Sapilem, Naaba (19th century)
  • Nyambre, Naaba (19th century)
  • Salma, Naaba (19th century)
  • Korongo, Naaba (1894)
  • Naaba Kutu I, Moogo-naaba (1850–1871)
  • Naaba Sanum, Moogo-naaba (1871–1889)
  • Naaba Wobgo, Moogo-naaba (1889–1897)
  • Naaba Mazi, Moogo-naaba (1896–1896)
  • Naaba Sigiri, Moogo-naaba (1897–1905)
  • Rima Naaba Yemde, Yatenga naaba (1850–1877)
  • Naaba Sanum, Yatenga naaba (1877–1879)
  • Rima Naaba Woboga, Yatenga naaba (1879–1884)
  • Naaba Piiyo II, Yatenga naaba (1884–1885)
  • Rima Naaba Baongo, Yatenga naaba (1885–1895)
  • Naaba Bulli, Yatenga naaba (1895–1899)
  • Sidiyete Wedraogo, ruler (1895–1896)
  • Naaba Ligidi, Yatenga naaba (1899–1902)

Cape Verde

Colony, 1462–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Gambia

British colony and protectorate, 1821–1965
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Ghana

British colony, 1821–1957
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Guinea

Colony, 1894–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Guinea-Bissau

Colony, 1474–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Ivory Coast

  • Kwadwo Agyeman, Gyaamanhene (1850–1895)
Colony, 1893–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Liberia

Mali

Colony, 1880–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Mauritania

Niger

  • Ibrahim, Sultan (1843–1851)
  • Koïzé Babba, Askiya (1845–1864)
  • Koïzé Babba Baki, Askiya (1864–1865)
  • Ouankoÿ, Askiya (1865–1868)
  • Biyo Birma, Askiya (1868–1882)
  • Doauda, Askiya (1882–1887)
  • Malla, Askiya (1887–1901)
  • Zarmakoy Kassam/Kossom Baboukabiya, King (1856–1865)
  • Zarmakoy Abdou Kyantou Baba, King (1865–1890)
  • Zarmakoy Alfa Atta, King (1890–1897)
  • Zarmakoy Attikou, King (1897–1902)

Nigeria

  • Hamidu bi Adama, Regent (1847–?)
  • Muhammadu Lawal, Baban-Lamido (1847–1872)
  • Umaru Sanda, Baban-Lamido (1872–1890)
  • Zubayru bi Adama, Baban-Lamido (1890–1901)
  • Effiom Okoho Asibong I Ekpo Minika, King (1849–1852)
  • Ededem Effiom II, King (1852–1858)
  • Eyo Asibong II, King (1859–1872)
  • Edem Asibong III Eyamba VIII, King (1872–1879)
  • Orok Edem Eyamba IX, King (1880–1896)
  • Eyo Etinyin, King (c.1896–c.1903)
  • Opubo Annie Pepple the Great, King (1792–1828)
  • Adumtaye-Bereibibo Adapa Bristol-Alagbariya, King (1828–1830)
  • William Dappa Pepple I, King (1830–1854, 1861–1866)
  • Dapu Fubara II Pepple, King (1854–1855)
  • Regency (1855–1861)
under British protectorate from 1886–1914[citation needed]
  • Shomoye, Regent (1845–1846, 1862–1868)
  • Okukenu, Regent (1846–1854), Alake (1854–1862)
  • Ademola I, Alake (1869–1877)
  • Oyekan, Alake (1879–1881)
  • Oluwajin, Alake (1885–1889)
  • Oshokalu, Alake (1891–1898)
  • Gbadebo I, Alake (1898–1920)
  • Ladapo Samuel Ademola II, Alake (1872–1962), in exile (1948–1950), ruler (1920–1962)
  • Grand Viziers
  • Ahmadu Mai Shahada, Grand Vizier (1889–1903)
  • Shita dan Salih Alimi, Emir (1842–1860)
  • Zubayro dan Abdusalami, Emir (1860–1868)
  • Shita Aliyu dan Shittu, Emir (1868–1891)
  • Moma dan Zubayru, Emir (1891–1896)
  • Sulaymanu dan Aliyu, Emir (1896–1914)
  • Jaja), ruler (1870–1887)[21]
  • Perekule, chairman Council of Chiefs (1887–1891)
  • Cookey Gam, political agent (1891–1893)
  • Obiesigha Jaja II (Frederick Sunday), King (1893–1915)
vassal to the United Kingdom: 1888–1896
  • Jatau "Abu Ja", Emir (1825–1851)
  • Abu Kwaka "Dogon Sarki", Emir (1851–1877)
  • Ibrahim "Iyalai" "Dodon Gwari", Emir (1877–1902)
  • Ya`quba dan Jibrilu Gajeren Sarki, Emir (1849–1850)
  • Sulaymanu Dan Addo dan Ibrahimu, Emir (1850–1871)
  • Abd Allahi Gallo dan Muhammadu Dan Ayi, Emir (1871–1888)
  • Abd Allahi Abarshi dan `Ali dan Yerima, Emir (1888–1904)
British protectorate, 1884–1893/ 1893–1900
British colony, 1821–1957
British protectorate, 1900–1914
British protectorate, 1900–1914
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Senegal

  • Tanor Ngone Jeng, Teigne (1890–1894)[22]
  • Maysa Tènde Jor Samba Fal, Damel (1832–1855)
  • Birima Ngone Latir Fal, Damel (1855–1860)
  • Ma-Kodu Kumba Yande Fal, Damel (1860–1861)
  • Ma-Jojo Jegeñ Kodu Fal, Damel (1861)
  • Lat Jor Ngone Latir Jop, Damel (1862–1864)
  • Ma-Jojo Jegeñ Kodu Fal, Damel (1864–1868)
  • Lat Jor Ngone Latir Jop, Damel (1871–1882)
  • Amari Ngone Fal, Damel (1883)
  • Samba Laobe Fal, Damel (1883–1886)
  • unknown Almaami (1804–1859)
Vassal of the Toucouleur Empire, 1861–1877
  • Mustafa, Almaami (1859–1868)
  • Ahmadu Sego, Almaami (1868–1875)
  • Abdul Bu Bakar, Almaami (1875–1877)
  • Balleh N'Gougou N'Dao (or Ballé Khordia Ndao), Maad Saloum (1825–1853)[23]
  • Bala Adam Njie, Maad Saloum (1853–1856)[23]
  • Kumba N'Dama Mbodj, Maad Saloum (1856–1859)[23]
  • Samba Laobe Latsouka Fall), Maad Saloum (1859–1864)[23]
Federation of colonies, 1895–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Sierra Leone

  • Moribu Kindo, Bai (1840–1859)
  • Kanta, Bai (1859–1872)
British colony and protectorate, 1808–1961
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Togo

Protectorate, 1884–1916
For details see the German Empire under central Europe

Americas[edit]

Americas: Caribbean[edit]

Antigua

British colony, 1632–1981
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

The Bahamas

British colony, 1648–1973
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Barbados

British colony, 1625–1966
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Cuba

Spanish Colony, 1607–1898
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Dominica

British Colony, 1763–1978
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

British Colony, 1763–1979
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Dominican Republic

Haiti

Netherlands

Dutch colony 1634–1828, 1845–1954
For details see the Netherlands under western Europe

Saint Kitts and Nevis

British colony, 1882–1983
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Saint Lucia

British colony, 1802–1979
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Trinidad and Tobago

British colony, 1797–1962
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Americas: Central[edit]

Belize

British colony, 1749–1862
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
British colony, 1862–1981
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Costa Rica

El Salvador

Guatemala

Honduras

Nicaragua

Americas: North[edit]

Canada

British colony, 1610–1907
British colony, 1841–1867
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Mexico

United States

Americas: South[edit]

Argentina

Bolivia

Brazil

Chile

Colombia

Ecuador

Guyana

British colony, 1814–1966
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Paraguay

Peru

Suriname

Dutch colony 1667–1954
For details see the Netherlands under western Europe

Uruguay

Venezuela

Asia[edit]

Asia: Central[edit]

Kazakhstan

Tibet

Manchu overlordship, 1720–1912
For details see the Qing dynasty under Eastern Asia

Uzbekistan

  • Muhammad Khudayar, Khan (1845–1858)
  • Muhammad Mallya Beg, Khan (1858–1862)
  • Shah Murad, Khan (1862)
  • Muhammad Khudayar Khan (1862–1865)
  • Muhammad Sultan, Khan (1863–1865)
  • Bil Bahchi, Khan (1865)
  • Muhammad Sultah, Khan (1865–1866)
  • Muhammad Khudayar, Khan (1866–1875)
  • Nasir ad-Din Abdul Karin, Khan (1875)
  • Muhammad Pulad Beg, Khan (1875–1875)
  • Nasir ad-Din Abdul Karim, Khan (1875–1883)
  • Abu al-Ghazi Muhammad Amin Bahadur, Khan (1846–1855)
  • Abdullah, Khan (1855)
  • Qutlugh Muhammad Murad Bahadur, Khan (1855–1856)
  • Mahmud, Khan (1856)
  • Sayyid Muhammad, Khan (1856–1864)
  • Muhammad Rahim Bahadur II., Khan (Feruz Khan), Khan (1864–1910)
Russian protectorate, 1873–1917
Russian Krai, 1867–1918
For details see the Russian Empire under Eastern Europe

Asia: East[edit]

China: Mainland

China: Taiwan

Japan

  • Kōmei, Emperor (1846–1867)
  • Meiji, Emperor (1867–1912)
  • Meiji, Emperor (1867–1912)
Vassal state of Satsuma Domain, 1609–1872
Vassal state of the Empire of Japan, 1872–1879

Korea

  • Gojong, King (1863–1897), Emperor (1897–1907)
  • Gojong, King (1863–1897), Emperor (1897–1907)

Asia: Southeast[edit]

Brunei

British protectorate, 1888–1984

Cambodia

Protectorate, 1863–1984, part of French Indochina 1887–1953

Indonesia

Dutch colony 1800–1811, 1816–1949
For details see the Netherlands under western Europe
Indonesia: Java
  • Cirebon IV, Sultan (1808–1810)[26]
  • Cakraningrat IX, Sultan (1847–1862)
  • Cakraningrat X, Sultan (1862–1882)
  • Cakraningrat XI, Sultan (1882–1885)
  • Paku Nataningrat, Sultan (1811–1854)
  • Natakusuma, Sultan (1854–1879)
  • Pangeran Pakunataningrat, Regent (1883–1901)
  • Pangeran Aria Suriokusumo, Sultan (1842–1853)
  • Mangkunegara III, Sultan (1835–1853)
  • Mangkunegara IV, Sultan (1853–1881)
  • Mangkunegara V, Sultan (1881–1896)
  • Mangkunegara VI, Sultan (1896–1916)
  • Pangeran Adipati Natapraja, Sultan (1831–1853)
  • Pakualam II, Sultan (1829–1858)
  • Pakualam III, Sultan (1858–1864)
  • Pakualam IV, Sultan (1864–1878)
  • Pakualam V, Sultan (1878–1900)
Indonesia: Sumatra
  • Ali, Sultan (1835–1855)
  • Amaluddin Mangendar, Sultan (1805–1850)
  • Osman Perkasa Alam Shah, Sultan (1850–1858)
  • Mahmud Al Rashid Perkasa Alamsyah, Sultan (1858–1873)
  • Ma'mun Al Rashid Perkasa Alamyah, Sultan (1873–1924)
  • Haji Musa al-Khalid al-Mahadiah Muazzam Shah, Sultan (1840–1893)
  • Abdul Aziz Abdul Jalil Rakhmat Shah, Sultan (1893–1927)
  • al-Sayyid al-Sharif Ismail Abdul Jalil Jalaluddin, Sultan (1815–1854)
  • al-Sayyid al-Sharif Qasim Abdul Jalil Syaifuddin I, Sultan (Syarif Qasim I, 1864–1889)
  • al-Sayyid al-Sharif Hashim Abdul Jalil Muzaffar Shah, Sultan (1889–1908)
  • Ali bin Raja Jaafar, Yang di-Pertuan Muda (1844–1857)
  • Haji Abdullah, Yang di-Pertuan Muda (1857–1858)
  • Muhammad Yusuf, Yang di-Pertuan Muda (1858–1899)
  • Jambi Sultanate
    Abdul Rahman Nazaruddin, Sultan (1841–1855)
    Thaha Safiuddin, Sultan (1855–1858, 1900–1904)
    Ahmad Nazaruddin, Sultan (1858–1881)
    Muhammad Muhieddin, Sultan (1881–1885)
    Ahmad Zainul Abidin, Sultan (1885–1899)
Indonesia: Kalimantan (Borneo)
  • Adam Al-Watsiq Billah, Sultan (1825–1857)
  • Tamjidullah II al-Watsiqu Billah, Sultan (1857–1859)
  • Hidayatullah II, Sultan (1859–1860)
  • Muhammad Alimuddin Amirul Muminin Kahharuddin I, Sultan (1817–1861, 1866–1873)
  • Muhammad Jalaluddin, Sultan (1861–1866)
  • Muhammad Khalifatul Adil, Sultan (1873–1875)
  • Muhammad Kahharuddin II, Sultan (1875–1889)
  • Azimuddin, Sultan (1889–1899)
  • Pengian Kesuma, Queen (1899–1901)
  • Liu Asheng, President (1848–1876)
  • Syarif Osman Alkadrie, Sultan (1819–1855)
  • Syarif Hamid Alkadrie, Sultan (1855–1872)
  • Syarif Yusuf Alkadrie, Sultan (1872–1895)
  • Syarif Muhammad Alkadrie, Sultan (1895–1944)
  • Abu Bakar Taj ud-din II, Sultan (1846–1854)
  • Umar Kamal ud-din, Sultan (1854–1866)
  • Muhammad Shafi ud-din II, Sultan (1866–1924)
Indonesia: Sulawesi
  • Abdul Kadir Moh Aidid, Sultan (1826–1893)
  • Idris, Sultan (1893–1895)
  • Husain, Sultan (1895–1906)
  • La Oddang Pero, Datu (1825–1854)
  • Patipatau, Datu (1854–1880)
  • We Addi Luwu, Datu (1880–1883)
  • Iskandar Opu Daeng Pali’, Datu (1883–1901)
Indonesia: Lesser Sunda Islands
  • Lorenzo II, Raja (c.1886–1904)
  • Ismail Muhammad Syah, Sultan (1817–1854)
  • Abdullah, Sultan (1854–1868)
  • Abdul Aziz, Sultan (1868–1881)
  • Ibrahim, Sultan (1881–1915)
Indonesia: West Timor
  • Loit Banu Naek, Raja (?–c.1899)
  • Muti Banu Naek, Raja (c.1899–1915)
  • Koroh Kefi, Raja (pre-1832–1853)
  • Obe Koroh, Raja (1853–1871)
  • Rasi Koroh, Raja (1872–1887, 1892–1914)
  • Taku Obe, Raja (1888–1891)
  • Osu II, Raja (1834–1859)
  • Mano, Raja (1859–1883)
  • Lelo, Raja (1884–1894)
  • Kusa, Raja (1895–1901)
  • Nai Sobe Sonbai II, Emperor (1808–1867))[27]
  • Nai Bau Sonbai, Emperor (1867–c.1885)
  • Nai Nasu Mollo, co-Emperor (1870–1885)
  • Nai Sobe Sonbai III, Emperor (1885–1906)
  • Meis Babkas Nisnoni, Raja (1839–1860)
  • Pieter Messi Nisnoni, Raja (1860–1874)
  • Isu Nisnoni, Raja (1875–1889)
  • Said Meis Nisnoni, Raja (1890–1902)
  • Baki, Raja (c.1824–1862)
  • Sanu, Raja (1862–c.1870)
  • Bil Nope, Raja (c.1870–1910)
Indonesia: Maluku Islands
Dutch protectorate, 1667–1942
  • Muhammad Hayatuddin Kornabé, Sultan (1826–1861)
  • Muhammad Sadik, Sultan (1862–1889)
  • Muhammad Usman, Sultan (1900–1935)
  • Dano Baba Hasan, Sultan (1875–1878)
Dutch protectorate, 1657–1905
  • Al-Mansur Sirajuddin, Sultan (1822–1856)
  • Ahmad Saifuddin Alting, Sultan (1856–1865)
  • Said Ahmad Fathuddin Syah, Sultan (1867–1892)
  • Iskandar Sahajuhan, Sultan (1893–1905)
Dutch protectorate, 1683–1915
  • Muhammad Zain, Sultan (1823–1859)
  • Muhammad Arsyad, Sultan (1859–1876)
  • Ayanhar, Sultan (1879–1900)
  • Muhammad Ilham/ Kolano Ara Rimoi, Sultan (1900–1902)

Laos

  • Po, King (1848–1865), vassal to Siam and Vietnam
  • Ung, King (1866–1876)
  • Khanti, King (1876–1880), vassal to Siam
  • Kham Ngon, King (1880–1899)
  • Soukhaseum, King (1838–1851)
  • Chantharath, King (1851–1870)
  • Oun Kham, King (1865–1893), King under Protectorate (1893–1895)
Protectorate and constituent of French Indochina (1893–1953)

Malaysia

Peninsular Malaysia
  • Radin, Yamtuan (1824–1861)
  • Imam, Yamtuan (1861–1869)
  • Tengku Ampuan Intan, Regent (1869–1872)
  • Antah, Yamtuan (1875–1888)
  • Muhammad, Yamtuan (1888–1933)
  • Syed Hussein Jamalullail, Penghulu (1825–1843), Raja (1843–1873)
  • Syed Ahmad Jamalullail, Raja (1873–1887)
  • Syed Saffi Jamalullail, Raja (1887–1905)
British protectorate, 1895–1942, 1945–1946
British protectorate, 1826–1942, 1945–1946
British protectorate, 1826–1942, 1945–1946
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
Malaysian Borneo
British colony, 1848–1890, 1904–1906, 1907–1941, 1945–1946
British colony, 1888–1941, 1945–1946; Crown colony, 1946–1963
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Myanmar / Burma

Philippines

  • Untong, Sultan (c.1830–c.1854)
  • Muhammad Makakwa, Sultan (c.1854–1884)
  • Wata, Sultan (?–c.1888)
  • Mangigin, Sultan (1896–1926)
Colony, 1565–1901
For details see Spain in southwest Europe
  • Emilio Aguinaldo, President of the Revolutionary Government (1898–1899), President of the First Republic (1899–1901)
  • Emilio Aguinaldo, President of the Revolutionary Government (1898–1899), President of the First Republic (1899–1901)

Singapore

British colony as part of the Straits Settlements, 1819–1867
British crown colony as part of the Straits Settlements, 1867–1963
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Thailand

Second Kelantanese dynasty
  • Phraya Long Muhammad Ibni Raja Muda Kelantan/Raja Kampong Laut Tuan Besar Long Ismail Ibni Raja Long Yunus, Sultan (1842–1856)
  • Tuan Long Puteh Bin Phraya Long Muhammad, ruler (1856–1881)
  • Tuan Besar Bin Tuan Long Puteh, ruler (1881–1890)
  • Tuan Long Bongsu Bin Sultan Phraya Long Muhammad, ruler (1890–1898)
  • Abdul Kadir Kamaruddin Syah, Sultan (?–1902)

Timor

Colony, 1702–1975
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Vietnam

Tây Sơn dynasty (complete list) –
Nguyễn dynasty (complete list) –
Colony, 1887–1946
Vietnamese constituents are below; for details see France under western Europe
French Colony, 1862–1949
French Protectorate, 1883–1945, 1945–1948
French Protectorate, 1884–1949
For details see France under western Europe

Asia: South[edit]

Afghanistan

Asia: West[edit]

Bahrain

Protectorate of the United Kingdom, 1861–1971

Cyprus

Colony, 1878–1960
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Iran

Iraq

Kuwait

Oman

Qatar

Saudi Arabia

Turkey

United Arab Emirates: Trucial States

Yemen

  • `Amm Dayb ibn `Ali al-Yaslami al-`Awlaqi, Amir (?)
  • Ruways ibn `Amm Dayb al-Yaslami al-`Awlaqi, Amir (?)
  • Nasir ibn Ruways al-Yaslami al-`Awlaqi, Amir (?)
  • Farid ibn Nasir al-Yaslami al-`Awlaqi, Amir (c.1871–1883)
  • Ruways ibn Farid al-Yaslami al-`Awlaqi, Amir (1883–1890)
  • `Amm Rassas ibn Farid al-Yaslami al-`Awlaqi, Amir (1890–1902)
  • `Abd Allah ibn Farid, Sultan (?–1862)
  • `Awad ibn `Abd Allah, Sultan (1862–1879)
  • `Abd Allah ibn `Awad, Sultan (1879–1887)
  • Salih ibn `Abd Allah, Sultan (1887–1935)
  • Thaifallah, Amir (?)
  • Mubarak, Amir (?)
  • Muhsin, Amir (?–1903)
  • Shafa`ul ibn `Abd al-Hadi al-`Amiri, Emir (?–1872)
  • `Ali ibn Muqbil al-`Amiri, Emir (1872–1873, 1874, 1878–1886)
  • Muhammad ibn Musa`id al-`Amiri, Emir (1873–1873)
  • `Abd Allah ibn Muhammad al-`Amiri, Emir (1874–1878)
  • Sha´if ibn Sayf al-`Amiri, Emir (1886–1911)
  • Ghalib ibn Muhsin al-Kathir, Sultan (1830–1880)
  • al-Mansur ibn Ghalib al-Kathir, Sultan (1880–1929)
  • 'Ali I ibn Muhsin al-'Abdali, Sultan (1849–1863)
  • al-Fadl III ibn 'Ali al-'Abdali, Sultan (1863–1863, 1874–1898)
  • al-Fadl IV ibn Muhsin al-'Abdali, Sultan (1863–1874)
  • Ahmad III ibn al-Fadl al-'Abdali, Sultan (1898–1914)
  • Ahmad ibn Sa`d Afrar al-Mahri, Sultan (mid-19th century)
  • `Abd Allah ibn Sa`d Afrar al-Mahri, Sultan (mid-19th century)
  • `Abd Allah ibn Salim Afrar al-Mahri, Sultan (mid-19th century)
  • `Ali ibn `Abd Allah Afrar al-Mahri, Sultan (late-19th century–1907)
  • al-Husayn ibn `Abd Allah, Sultan (?)
  • `Abd Allah ibn al-Husayn, Sultan (?)
  • Ahmad ibn al-Husayn al-Wahidi, Sultan (?–1877)
  • Salih ibn Ahmad, Sultan (1877–1881)
  • `Umar ibn al-Husayn al-Wahidi, Sultan (1881–1881)
  • Muhsin ibn `Ali al-Wahidi, Sultan (1850–1870)
  • `Abd Allah ibn `Umar al-Wahidi, Sultan (1870–1881)
  • `Abd Allah ibn `Umar, Sultan (1881–1885)
  • al-Hadi ibn Salih al-Wahidi, Sultan (1885–1892)
  • Muhsin ibn Salih al-Wahidi, Sultan (1892–1893)
  • Salih ibn `Abd Allah al-Wahidi, Sultan (1893–1904)
  • `Abd Allah ibn al-Husayn al-Wahidi, Sultan (1850–1870)
  • Ahmad ibn al-Husayn al-Wahidi, Sultan (1870–1877)
  • Salih ibn Ahmad al-Wahidi, Sultan (1877–1881)
  • Nasir ibn Salih al-Wahidi, Sultan (1885–1919)
  • Ahmad ibn Ali al-Afifi, ruler (1841–1873, 1891–1893)
  • Ali II ibn Ahmad al-Afifi, ruler (1873–1885)
  • Muhsin I ibn Ahmad al-Afifi, ruler (1885–1891)
  • Abu Bakr ibn Sha'if al-Afifi, ruler (1893–1899)
  • Abd Allah ibn Muhsin al-Afifi, ruler (1899–1916)
  • `Abd Allah ibn Nasir ibn Salih Al Harhara, Sultan (c.1840–1866)
  • al-Husayn ibn Abi Bakr ibn Qahtan Al Harhara, Sultan (1866–1875)
  • Muhammad ibn `Ali ibn Salih ibn Ahmad Al Harhara, Sultan (1875–1895)
  • Qahtan ibn `Umar ibn al-Husayn Al Harhara, Sultan (1895–1903)

Europe[edit]

Europe: Balkans[edit]

Bulgaria

Croatia

part of the Habsburg Monarchy, also part of the Lands of the Hungarian Crown
part of the Austrian Empire

Greece

Autonomous state of the Ottoman Empire, establishment by the Great Powers, 1898–1913
British protectorate, 1815–1864
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Kosovo

administrative division of the Ottoman Empire, under Austro-Hungarian occupation 1878–1913

Montenegro

  • Petar II, Prince-bishop (1830–1851)
  • Danilo II, Prince-Bishop (1851–1852), Prince (1852–1860)
  • Danilo II, Prince-Bishop (1851–1852), Prince (1852–1860)
  • Nikola I, Sovereign prince (1860–1910), King (1910–1918)

Serbia

Slovenia

Europe: British Isles[edit]

Europe: Central[edit]

Germany Empire

Austria-Hungary

Habsburg-Lorraine ruled under numerous simultaneous titles

Bohemia

Liechtenstein

Switzerland

Constituent states of the Confederation of the Rhine and German Confederation[edit]

These are leaders of constituent states from the German mediatisation in 1806 until the dissolution of the German Confederation in 1866. Leaders of constituent states within the Holy Roman Empire are excluded up to the time of German mediatisation (1801–1806).

re-united to Anhalt
  • Leopold III, Prince (1751–1758), Duke (1758–1817), Regent of Anhalt-Köthen (1812–1817)
  • Leopold IV, Duke of Anhalt-Dessau (1817–1863), of Anhalt-Köthen (1847–1863), of Anhalt (1863–1871), Regent of Anhalt-Köthen (1817–1818)
  • Friedrich Carl Hector Wilhelm Freiherr von Günderrode, Senior Mayor (1851)
  • Johann Georg Neuburg (Politiker) [de], Senior Mayor (1852)
  • Carl Heinrich Georg von Heyden, Senior Mayor (1853)
  • Johann Georg Neuburg, Senior Mayor (1854)
  • Eduard Ludwig von Harnier [de], Senior Mayor (1855)
  • Johann Georg Neuburg, Senior Mayor (1856)
  • Eduard Ludwig von Harnier, Senior Mayor (1857)
  • Johann Georg Neuburg, Senior Mayor (1858)
  • Eduard Ludwig von Harnier, Senior Mayor (1859)
  • Samuel Gottlieb Müller, Senior Mayor (1860)
  • Friedrich Carl Hector Wilhelm Freiherr von Günderrode, Senior Mayor (1861)
  • Johann Georg Neuburg, Senior Mayor (1862)
  • Samuel Gottlieb Müller, Senior Mayor (1863)
  • Anton Heinrich Emil von Oven [de], Senior Mayor (1864)
  • Philipp Friedrich Gwinner [de], Senior Mayor (1865)
  • Karl Konstanz Viktor Fellner [de], Senior Mayor (1866)
  • Wilhelm Friedrich, Prince (1816–1865)
  • Otto I, Prince (1865–1892)

Europe: East[edit]

Romania

Russia

Ukraine

1804–1918, crownland of the Austrian Empire

Europe: Nordic[edit]

Denmark

Finland

Sweden–Norway

First ministers in Christiania, Norway
Prime ministers in Christiania, Norway

Europe: Southcentral[edit]

Italy

Malta

British colony, 1813–1964
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

San Marino

Vatican City

Europe: Southwest[edit]

Andorra

Portugal

Spain

Europe: West[edit]

Belgium

France

Luxembourg

Monaco

Netherlands

Eurasia: Caucasus[edit]

Azerbaijan

Georgia

Russia: Dagestan

  • Aglar ibn Umar, Khan (1847–1859)
  • Jafar ibn Aglar, Khan (1877–1877)

Oceania[edit]

Australia and Papua New Guinea[edit]

Australia

British colony, 1788–1900
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Papua New Guinea

German colony, 1884–1919
For details see the German Empire under central Europe
British protectorate, 1884–1888
British colony, 1888–1902
For details see the United Kingdom under the British Isles, Europe

Pacific[edit]

Chile

  • Nga'ara, King (c.1835–pre-1860)
  • Maurata, King (1859–1862)
  • Kai Mako'i 'Iti, King (?–1863)
  • Tepito,[29] King (?)
  • Gregorio,[29] King (?)
  • Atamu Tekena, King (?–pre-1892)[30]

Fiji

British colony, 1874–1970
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

French Polynesia

Protectorate of France, 1887/1888–1959

New Zealand

British colony, 1891–1901
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
British colony, 1841–1907
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
  • Galiga, Patu-iki (?)
  • Foki-mata, Patu-iki (?–c.1874)
  • Pakieto, Patu-iki (c.1874–c.1875)
  • Tui-toga, Patu-iki (1885–1887)
  • Fata-a-iki, Patu-iki (1887–1896)
  • Togia-Pulu-toaki, Patu-iki (1898–1900)
British protectorate, 1900–1907
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
British protectorate, 1888–1901
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Samoa and American Samoa

German colony, 1900–1914
For details see the German Empire under central Europe
  • Tauveve, Manu’a (?)
  • Visala, Manu’a (?)
  • Alalamua, Manu’a (?)
  • Matelita, Manu’a (1891–1895)
  • Elisala, Manu’a (1899–1909)

Solomon Islands

British protectorate, 1893–1978
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Tonga

Tuvalu

British colony, 1892–1976
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

United States: Hawaii

Vanuatu

British-French Protectorate, 1887–1889, 1890–1906
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles and France under western Europe
  • Ferdinand Chevillard, President (1889)
  • R. D. Polk, President (c.1890)[43]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Joyce (M.A.) & Torday (E.), Notes ethnographiques sur les peuples communément appelés Bakuba, ainsi que sur les peuplades apparentées, les Bushongo. Bruxelles 1910; page 17–19
  2. ^ Dictionary of African Biography, p. 225
  3. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), pp. lxxxivf
  4. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), p. lxxxix
  5. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), p. lxxxvif
  6. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), p. lvi. Amnon Orent, "Refocusing on the History of Kafa prior to 1897: A Discussion of Political Processes" in African Historical Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2. (1970), p. 268.
  7. ^ [Ta'a, Tesema. "The Process of Urbanization in Wollega, Western Ethiopia: The Case of Neqemte". Journal of Ethiopian Studies 26, no. 1 (1993): 59–72. Accessed April 29, 2020. www.jstor.org/stable/41966012. p. 63]
  8. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), pp. lxv – lxvii.
  9. ^ a b Mukhtar, Mohamed Haji (25 February 2003). Historical Dictionary of Somalia. p. 26. ISBN 9780810866041. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
  10. ^ The social structure of southern Somali tribes, Virginia Luling, pg. 204
  11. ^ Stewart, John (1989). African States and Rulers. London: McFarland. p. 226. ISBN 0-89950-390-X.
  12. ^ a b Madiéga 1982, p. 123.
  13. ^ Madiéga 1982, p. 123–124.
  14. ^ Madiéga 1982, p. 123,133.
  15. ^ Hughes, Arnold and David Perfect. Historical Dictionary of the Gambia. p. 113
  16. ^ "Nigeria: Traditional polities". Rulers.Org. Retrieved 2 September 2010.
  17. ^ a b Adewunmi Elegbede. "Kingdoms of Nigeria, The Nigerian Database of Rulers, Kings, Kingdoms, Political and Traditional Leaders". kingdomsofnigeria.com.
  18. ^ Slavery and the Birth of an African City. p. 46.
  19. ^ Slavery in Africa and the Caribbean. p. 95.
  20. ^ Slavery and the Birth of an African City.
  21. ^ Sylvanus John Sodienye Cookey King Jaja of the Niger Delta: His Life and Times 1821–1891, p. 117
  22. ^ (in French) Bulletin de l'Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire, volume 38, 1976, p. 493
  23. ^ a b c d e Klein, Martin A., Islam and Imperialism in Senegal. Sine-Saloum, 1847–1914, Edinburgh University Press, 1968, p. XV
  24. ^ Barry, Boubacar, "Le royaume du Waalo": le Sénégal avant la conquête, Karthala, 1985, p 317, ISBN 2865371417
  25. ^ "Civil War BIOGRAPHY Jefferson Davis". American Battlefield Trust. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  26. ^ Stokvis (1888); Sulendraningrat (1985); Sunardjo (1996), p. 81.
  27. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  28. ^ Heard-Bey, Frauke (2005). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates : a society in transition. London: Motivate. p. 73. ISBN 1860631673. OCLC 64689681.
  29. ^ a b Englert, Sebastián (2004). La tierra de Hotu Matu'a: historia y etnología de la Isla de Pascua : gramática y diccionario del antiguo idioma de Isla de Pascua. Editorial Universitaria. p. 65. ISBN 978-956-11-1704-4.
  30. ^ RAPA NUI: INDIGENOUS STRUGGLES FOR THE NAVEL OF THE WORLD[permanent dead link]
  31. ^ a b Laval, Newbury & O'Reilly 1968, p. 578.
  32. ^ Cuzent 1872, pp. 117–118.
  33. ^ Laval, Newbury & O'Reilly 1968, p. 318.
  34. ^ a b Laval, Newbury & O'Reilly 1968, pp. 610–611.
  35. ^ Cuzent 1872, p. 144.
  36. ^ Deschanel 1888, pp. 27–30.
  37. ^ Deschanel 1888, pp. 59, 71.
  38. ^ Deschanel 1888, pp. 59–60.
  39. ^ Rabou 1882, pp. 799–807.
  40. ^ "Partie Officielle" (PDF). Journal Officiel des Etablissements Français de l'Océanie. 2 May 1889. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
  41. ^ "The Sunny South Seas Gambier Archipelago. A Little-Known Group". Te Aroha News, Volume VII, Issue 379, 22 June 1889, Page 6.
  42. ^ "Women in Power 1870–1900". Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
  43. ^ "Wee, Small Republics: A Few Examples of Popular Government", Hawaiian Gazette, 1 November 1895, p. 1